Maintenance And Safety Requirements Of The Modern Age
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Maintenance And Safety Requirements Of The Modern Age
 
Article Introduction
Maintenance, safety, protection and preservation of a system depend on energy transfer taking place in specific time duration and the amount of space where such energy transmission takes place.

Article Description
Maintenance can be defined as keeping steady the existence of any state, to safeguard from capture, loss or worsening of a system. A system may be a machine, a biological or medical product, an electronic device or the like. Various cautions are required for the proper upkeep of a system. Safety is required to retain a system unharmed and free from danger. It is also necessary to avoid the risk of systems failure for proper maintenance.

But sheer maintenance of systems is not sufficient. With the fast changing technology there is a necessity to alter the outlook towards the maintenance and safety of systems that make use of such technology. Safety considerations will have to include the two extreme sides of energy: the impact of nuclear energy and the safety of systems using nanotechnology. In intense cases such as natural disasters or a nuclear explosion, the only way is to keep the systems safe is by keeping such systems in different locations to avoid total elimination. The same holds for information technology systems where virus attacks in addition to physical constrictions cause major problems. As for the systems built with nanotechnology, it is a must for those dealing with such systems to have knowledge of radioactivity. Hence special maintenance systems that can detect the invisible radioactive rays have to be used. Only then we can avoid catastrophes like the Chernobyl disaster and its after effects.

Various factors
There are various factors that need to be taken into consideration for proper maintenance of a system. These include :
- Heat content and temperature variations.
- Pressure variations
- Volume variations
- Effect of impulsive physical force
- Effect of water, oil, acids or alkalies
- Corrosion
- Voltage changes
- Current changes
- Combustibility
- Dust deposition
- Effect of radiation
- Theft etc for physical systems
- Frauds, viruses etc in computer basic information systems etc.

Proper planning
For maintenance, safety of a system of any industrial centre, a well-coordinated activity is required at every stage of development and production. Prevention is better than cure, and hence preventive measures at each stage are required. Terrible accidents in industries have taken place either due to lack of knowledge about the system or poor maintenance practices. In general, to avoid accidents, reliability tested equipment must be used. Periodic tests or check ups are needed for monitoring defects that may have crept in.

Fast developments
The recent years have seen rapid interdisciplinary developments in science and technology. Some examples include the development of high-temperature ceramic super-conductors containing copper and lanthanide ions. These ceramic compounds loose all electrical resistance at liquid nitrogen temperatures (Liquid nitrogen boils at 77.3K). While other alloys become superconductors at liquid helium temperatures (helium boils at 4.2K). Future extrapolations predict the development of organic polymers, super conductors that would work at room temperature. Another recent discovery is the development of collosal magnetoresistance (CMR) where the electrical resistance of a material changes immensely in the presence of a magnetic field. This property is important for devices, which read data on magnetic storage device, such as computer hard disc.

The increasing advancements in miniaturization could result with removable hard-disc and magnet. Optical technologies may compete with present day hard disc technology in speed, capacity and art. If such device comes in market, people would prefer device with the removable hard disc to former ones. That way the total storage capacity of the systems may easily be expanded in personal computers and large amount of data files could be handled. Moreover, the devices could be replaced when they malfunction. Recent improvement in CD technology has increased the capacity of disc to a few GBs. Another new approach is to record multiple layers of information on CDs using holographic images that are recorded on a crystal. Developments are going on to use holographic techniques to store terra bytes (thousands of Giega bytes) in small crystals of the size of sugar cubes. The new innovative technologies demand new material, for example material with electrical resistivity below that of copper and dielectrics with lower values etc in the case of microprocessors. Further more the dielectrics must have high physical strength and thermal conductivity as well as good thermal stability.The increasing advancements in miniaturization could result with removable hard-disc and magnet. Optical technologies may compete with present day hard disc technology in speed, capacity and art. If such device comes in market, people would prefer device with the removable hard disc to former ones. That way the total storage capacity of the systems may easily be expanded in personal computers and large amount of data files could be handled. Moreover, the devices could be replaced when they malfunction. Recent improvement in CD technology has increased the capacity of disc to a few GBs. Another new approach is to record multiple layers of information on CDs using holographic images that are recorded on a crystal. Developments are going on to use holographic techniques to store terra bytes (thousands of Giega bytes) in small crystals of the size of sugar cubes. The new innovative technologies demand new material, for example material with electrical resistivity below that of copper and dielectrics with lower values etc in the case of microprocessors. Further more the dielectrics must have high physical strength and thermal conductivity as well as good thermal stability.

New challenges
Along with challenges associated with the introduction of new materials and new technologies, dimensional control will become increasingly difficult at smaller feature sizes. In electronics miniaturization is theme of the day. Smaller the feature size more difficult will be the etching and filling structures etc. For miniaturization in electronics presently scaling down is going on very fast to understand the problems involved regarding size etc. Here we consider ICs below. The other aspect is scaling upwards from atomic and molecular levels to engineering product, one of the latest discovery of crystalline state reaction is included here.

Scaling down engineering
Maintenance, safety and upkeep of the systems have become very significant in the times when every thing seems to be nano: nano structures, nano-technology, nano-machines. It is observed that as the technology is approaching nano that is 10-9 meters or at atomic and molecular levels, better is the performance. For example:
- Present nanotehcnology method of making plates of lead acid batteries seems to have improved its life time by three to four times. So average lifetime of a well maintained lead acid battery could easily be about twelve years or more.
- In the case of solar cells making multilayer junctions has improved the power conversion efficiency from solar radiation to electricity.

But this miniaturization will lead to a number of the technical challenges. For proper functioning adequate long-term electrical and mechanical reliability has to be kept in mind before a new material is introduced. Today electronic devices are used in almost all the industries for quality control, automation etc. Initially it started with tube devices. Then came semiconductors based systems. Next came the integrated circuitry, which is a complete electronic circuit containing both active (such as diodes, transistor etc) and passive (such as resistors, condensers, etc) components fabrication in one small chip of semiconductor usually silicon with metallic inter connections. Figure 1 is a typical IC in a pictoral representation of where the possibilities exist to reduce size and distance for miniaturization. Distances between transistors scale with transistor feature size, local inter connect lengths are decreasing with the continued scaling down processes. Advances in optical lithography have resulted in a phenomenal rate of increase in integration density of silicon chips. Lithography is the process that patterns and guides fabrication of semiconductor components devices and the inter connections. It is a fundamental process for manufacturing highly integrated micro electronic circuitry.

Synthesizing up approach
A good number of machines of molecular size, motors, switches are already made that operate generally in liquid solution. For chemists the problem of designing and building nanometre scale molecules is much less than the problem of connecting these molecule devices to macroscopic engineering materials such as connecting to keyboard, monitor screen, mouse etc.
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Posted : 10/26/2005

 
 
Maintenance And Safety Requirements Of The Modern Age