Driving its origin from greek word Nano, which means dwraf; Nanotechnology deals with technologies and materials in 0.1 to 100nm scale. A Nanometre is one billionth of a meter (m)-equivalent to the width of six bonded carbon items. Though Nanotechnology applies to everything from medicine to industrial materials to agriculture, it offers special attractive opportunities for the electronics industry. The best and incomparable aspect of Nanotechnology is that it allows re-structuring of atoms and molecules for construction of smaller, faster, efficient and safer products for home, communications, medicine, transportation, agriculture and industry. In other words, Nanotechnology is a hybrid science that combines engineering and chemistry.
According to Dr Rudra Pratap, professor from Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, and chairman of Cranes Software International, "The main excitement in Nanotechnology field is due to the ability to understand and probe the length scale which is purely nature`s domain and then mimic it. The technology of the day is revolutionised in first 50 years, then expanded in next 50 years and finally transformed for the industry and regular use. Thus the basic advancements in science and technology come about twice a century and lead to massive wealth creation,"
DNA: Ideal for molecular electronics
DNA is a molecular electronic unit produced by nature. It stores, processes and provides information for growth and maintenance of living beings. But, for all this process to take place properly it is very important for all genes to respond at right time. Therefore, by controlling DNA, certain genes could be activated and deactivated at required time. This turning on and turning off action can be implemented by using DNA-based switches.
Carbon Nanotubes (CNs)-- elongated permutation of 60-atom molecules, are key Nano components of electronics. A CN behaves as a conductor, semiconductor or insulator depending on the way individual atoms are oriented relative to its axis, and can help built microscopic resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes or transistors. Concentric Nanotubes can store charges because of capacitance among layers, facilitating development of high-density memory chips.
Tiny patient monitor
Researchers at Nanomix have shrunk the operating room machine into a small, disposable patient monitor called Capnography sensor--a human breathing monitor, which can be carried to a disaster site. Basically, Capnography sensor consists of carbon Nonotubes, polymers and silicon and CN transistor attached with carbon dioxide--detecting polymers, can determine carbon dioxide concentration in ambient and exhaled air.
Nanotechnology to create environmental friendly atmosphere
Nanotechnology can be used to create a clean environment by clearing problem causing elements. For instance, airborne Nanorobots could be designed to rebuild the thinning ozone layer. Contaminants could be automatically removed from water sources, and oil spills could be cleaned up instantly. Hence, Nanomachines could simply construct the needed Resources.
According to Dr Rajah Vijay Kumar, director and chief scientific officer at the Centre for Advanced Research and Development (CARD), Bangalore, "Nanotechnology-based
Nanoblaster is a new way of thinking into tissue destruction, not only in cancer but other unwanted biological microstructures. As an offshoot of Cytotron technology developed by CARD, our researchers have developed a new technique to blast cancer cells in the human brain and other parts of the human body that has a promising future."
Thus, using Nanotechnology many untouched topic in the field of the science can be explored varying from small electronic chips to molecular electronics
What future holds for Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is going to bring the current technology to a new height. . Computers will compute faster, materials will become stronger, and medicine will cure more diseases. Nanotechnology, which works on the nanometer scale of molecules and atoms, will be a large part of this future, enabling great improvements in all these fields. Advanced Nanotechnology will work with molecular precision, making a wide range of products that are impossible to make today. For example Nanoparticles can be used to produce hybrid coating that will provide coating systems, which can withstand various environment impacts.
But for all this to happen in India, the old mindset of academia looking at the industry as a prime source of cash and the industry looking at the academic research as vanity needs to be changed. The government should concentrate on encouraging students to take research as their career. This could be only possible if government takes an initiative to set up infrastructure needed for commercialisation of products based on Nanotechnology.
According to Business Communications Company, an industry research firm, the $7.6-billion Nanotechnology industry rivals the biotechnology market and is growing twice as fast, which gives an idea how much investment is done even though results are obtained